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The Return of Peron and Aftermath

by on December 9, 2011

With an undeniable 61 percent, a 77 year-old Juan Peron return to his throne, after 18 years of exile.  This time his formula was with his new wife Maria Estela Martinez de Peron (also known as Isabelita of 43 years).  Unfortunately for his followers, he pasted away on July first of 1974, leaving Martinez as head of state, and the first woman president of “the west hemisphere.” (Crow 1992 (1946), p. 849)  However, their government only worsened the economic situation, inflation was ungraspable and terror filled the streets with political kidnappings and murders.

The military inevitable dethroned Martinez in March of 1976 and replaced her with the head of the army at the time, General Rafael Videla.  Argentina entered what the generals called “the process of military re-organization.”(Todo Argentina)  The congress was dismissed and military law returned once more.  The goal was to cleanse the country of terrorism, and the military was in full force.

The new government was able to reduce inflation from 750 percent to 160 percent; but prices within Argentina grew rapidly.  For instance, the price of bread jumped from 60 pesos to 350. (Crow 1992 (1946), p. 849) There was also an anti-Semitic sentiment in the government and as a result many Jewish argentines fled the country.  There was also an overwhelming disappearance of 10,000 people during this period.  Ultimately, inflation returned and the economy sank with it.

General Roberto Eduardo Viola replaced Videla in March of 1981.  However, his government was shot lived, and by December of the same year, Leopoldo Galtieri took over.  During his regime, Argentina would attempt to gain control over the Falkland Island (Las Malvinas).  In April of 1982, they were able to invade and throw out the British occupants.  This restored some sense of argentine pride, but just two months later the British returned in full force and took back Las Malvinas.  Consequently, Galtieri resigned and Reynaldo Bignone took charge of the transitional government until elections.

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