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by on November 7, 2011

The Peron Era: Part 1

Juan Domingo Peron played a vital role in the military coup of 1943 as a colonel supporting General Edelmiro Farrell and in return he was appointed as Minister of Labor. (LatinAmericanHistory)  While working for the Labor Department he devised liberal reforms.  No one had ever paid too much attention to the labor ministry but with Peron in charge, he was able to bring change to this forgotten realm with the “Descamisados” movement.

The Descamisados were the underpaid workers of Argentina that had no voice in the government.    What Peron promised and delivered was to grant workers better work conditions, bonuses, expand social security, tenure and pensions. (Class Reading)  This created an alliance between syndicalist and socialist movements, which was crucial in the labor union.  Peron’s power and influence were rapidly growing within the government and people were beginning to hear his name.  (Wiki)  In no time, he had become the new vice-president, Minister of War, and a strong potential presidential candidate.

After a provoking speech in September of 1945, while masses began to fall in love with him, his opposition became restless.  By October, opponents within the armed forces coerced him to resign, arrested him and shipped him off to La Plata in hopes to rid themselves of his potential.  However, their plan failed when the masses rose up against the current government protesting his release.  A key player in this demonstration was his newly wed wife, radio personality, Eva Duarte.

Nevertheless, after just four days of being in jail, Peron was released before the elections and shortly after moved into the “Casa Rosada” in 1946 as the new President of Argentina.  His two main objectives would then be social justice and economic independence.

In 1949, he replaces the 1853 constitution and gave federal government control over the national economy and financial structure.  (Class Reading)  His work began with the nationalization of banks and the expropriation of the British Railways, who were “bought” for 150 million pesos.  He also bought out the American Telephone Company for $100 million and nationalized airlines and shipping.

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