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by on September 10, 2011

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4 Comments
  1. Hi, this is a comment.
    To delete a comment, just log in, and view the posts’ comments, there you will have the option to edit or delete them.

  2. Argentina – CIA Factbook
    Population:
    41,769,726 (July 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 25.4% (male 5,429,488/female 5,181,289)
    15-64 years: 63.6% (male 13,253,468/female 13,301,530)
    65 years and over: 11% (male 1,897,144/female 2,706,807) (2011 est.)

    Median age:
    total: 30.5 years
    male: 29.5 years
    female: 31.6 years (2011 est.)

    Population growth rate:
    1.017% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115

    Birth rate:
    17.54 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111

    Death rate:
    7.38 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120

    Net migration rate:
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114

    Urbanization:
    urban population: 92% of total population (2010)
    rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

    Major cities – population:
    BUENOS AIRES (capital) 12.988 million; Cordoba 1.493 million; Rosario 1.231 million; Mendoza 917,000; San Miguel de Tucuman 831,000 (2009)

    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.052 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 10.81 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 145
    male: 12.08 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 9.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 76.95 years
    country comparison to the world: 68
    male: 73.71 years
    female: 80.36 years (2011 est.)

    Total fertility rate:
    2.31 children born/woman (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97

    HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
    0.5% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69

    HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
    110,000 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39

    HIV/AIDS – deaths:
    2,900 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46

    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: intermediate
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A
    water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)

    Drinking water source:
    improved:
    urban: 98% of population
    rural: 80% of population
    total: 97% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 2% of population
    rural: 20% of population
    total: 3% of population (2008)

    Sanitation facility access:
    improved:
    urban: 91% of population
    rural: 77% of population
    total: 90% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 9% of population
    rural: 23% of population
    total: 10% of population (2008)

    Nationality:
    noun: Argentine(s)
    adjective: Argentine

    Ethnic groups:
    white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-white groups 3%

    Religions:
    nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

    Languages:
    Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French

    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 97.2%
    male: 97.2%
    female: 97.2% (2001 census)

    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 16 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 17 years (2007)

    Education expenditures:
    4.9% of GDP (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 63

    https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html
    # # #

    Government ::ARGENTINA
    Country name:
    conventional long form: Argentine Republic
    conventional short form: Argentina
    local long form: Republica Argentina
    local short form: Argentina
    Government type: republic
    Capital:
    name: Buenos Aires
    geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 40 W
    time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: none scheduled for 2011
    Administrative divisions:

    23 provinces (provincias, singular – provincia) and 1 autonomous city*; Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires*, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego – Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (Tierra del Fuego), Tucuman
    note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica
    Independence:

    9 July 1816 (from Spain)
    National holiday:

    Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)
    Constitution:

    1 May 1853; amended many times starting in 1860
    Legal system:

    civil law system based on West European legal systems; note – efforts at civil code reform begun in the mid-1980s has stagnated
    International law organization participation:

    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Suffrage: 18-70 years of age; universal and compulsory
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 December 2007); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head o government: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 December 2007)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website )
    elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 October 2007 (next election to be held in 23 October 2011)
    election results: Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER elected president; percent of vote – Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER 45%, Elisa CARRIO 23%, Roberto LAVAGNA 17%, Alberto Rodriguez SAA 8%, other 7%
    Legislative branch:
    bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently one-third of the members elected every two years to serve six-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to serve four-year terms)
    elections: Senate – last held on 28 June 2009 (next to be held in 2011); Chamber of Deputies – last held on 28 June 2009 (next to be held in 2011)
    election results: Senate – percent of vote by bloc or party – NA; seats by bloc or party – FpV 8, ACyS 14, PJ disidente 2; Chamber of Deputies – percent of vote by bloc or party – NA; seats by bloc or party – FpV 45, ACyS 42, PRO 20, PJ disidente 12, other 8; note – as of 1 February 2011, the composition of the entire legislature is as follows: Senate – seats by bloc or party – FpV 32, UCR 16, PJ disidente 14, other 10; Chamber of Deputies – seats by bloc or party – FpV 87, ACyS 43, PRO 11, PJ disidente 28, CC 19, PS 6, other 63
    Judicial branch:

    Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate)
    note: the Supreme Court has seven judges; the Argentine Congress in 2006 passed a bill to gradually reduce the number of Supreme Court judges to five
    Political parties and leaders:
    Civic and Social Accord or ACyS (a now-defunct center-left alliance that included the CC, UCR, and Socialist parties-created ahead of the 2009 legislative elections); Civic Coalition or CC (a broad coalition loosely affiliated with Elisa CARRIO); Dissident Peronists or PJ Disidente (a sector of the Justicialist Party opposed to the Kirchners); Front for Victory or FpV (a broad coalition, including elements of the UCR and numerous provincial parties) [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]; Justicialist Party or PJ [Daniel SCIOLI]; Radical Civic Union or UCR [Ernesto SANZ]; Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI] (including Federal Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Esteban BULLRICH]; Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH] (associated with the Civic Coalition); numerous provincial parties
    Political pressure groups and leaders:
    Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers’ association); Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners’ association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners’ association); Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union for employed and unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); White and Blue CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation); Roman Catholic Church
    other: business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); students
    International organization participation:
    AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, RG, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US:

    chief of mission: Ambassador Alfredo Vicente CHIARADIA
    chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Vilma MARTINEZ
    embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
    mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: US Embassy Buenos Aires, Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
    telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
    FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May; the colors represent the clear skies and snow of the Andes; the sun symbol commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810 during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence; the sun features are those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun
    National anthem:
    name: “Himno Nacional Argentino” (Argentine National Anthem)
    lyrics/music: Vicente LOPEZ y PLANES/Jose Blas PARERA
    note: adopted 1813; Vicente LOPEZ was inspired to write the anthem after watching a play about the 1810 May Revolution against Spain
    # # #

    Economy ::ARGENTINA
    Economy – overview:

    Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world’s wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. A severe depression, growing public and external indebtedness, and a bank run culminated in 2001 in the most serious economic, social, and political crisis in the country’s turbulent history. Interim President Adolfo RODRIGUEZ SAA declared a default – the largest in history – on the government’s foreign debt in December of that year, and abruptly resigned only a few days after taking office. His successor, Eduardo DUHALDE, announced an end to the peso’s decade-long 1-to-1 peg to the US dollar in early 2002. The economy bottomed out that year, with real GDP 18% smaller than in 1998 and almost 60% of Argentines under the poverty line. Real GDP rebounded to grow by an average 8.5% annually over the subsequent six years, taking advantage of previously idled industrial capacity and labor, an audacious debt restructuring and reduced debt burden, excellent international financial conditions, and expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. Inflation also increased, however, during the administration of President Nestor KIRCHNER, which responded with price restraints on businesses, as well as export taxes and restraints, and beginning in early 2007, with understating inflation data. Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her husband as President in late 2007, and the rapid economic growth of previous years began to slow sharply the following year as government policies held back exports and the world economy fell into recession. The economy has rebounded strongly from the 2009 recession, but the government’s continued reliance on expansionary fiscal and monetary policies risks exacerbating already high inflation.
    GDP (purchasing power parity): $596 billion (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    $554.5 billion (2009 est.)
    $571.6 billion (2008 est.)
    note: data are in 2010 US dollars

    GDP (official exchange rate): $370.3 billion (2010 est.)

    GDP – real growth rate: 7.5% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    -3% (2009 est.)
    5% (2008 est.)

    GDP – per capita (PPP): $14,700 (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    $13,700 (2009 est.)
    $14,100 (2008 est.)
    note: data are in 2010 US dollars

    GDP – composition by sector:
    agriculture: 8.5%
    industry: 31.6%
    services: 59.8% (2010 est.)

    Labor force: 16.54 million
    country comparison to the world: 36
    note: urban areas only (2010 est.)

    Labor force – by occupation:
    agriculture: 5%
    industry: 23%
    services: 72% (2009 est.)

    Unemployment rate: 7.9% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    8.7% (2009 est.)

    Population below poverty line: 30%
    note: data are based on private estimates (2010)

    Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.7%
    highest 10%: 29.5% (3rd Quarter, 2010)

    Distribution of family income – Gini index: 41.4 3rd quarter, 2010
    country comparison to the world: 53

    Investment (gross fixed): 22% of GDP (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Budget: revenues: $87.63 billion
    expenditures: $86.85 billion (2010 est.)

    Taxes and other revenues: 23.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125

    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    0.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40

    Public debt: 45.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    48.6% of GDP (2009 est.)
    note: official data

    Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    16% (2009 est.)
    note: data are derived from private estimates
    Central bank discount rate: NA%

    Commercial bank prime lending rate: 10.558% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    15.655% (31 December 2009 est.)

    Stock of narrow money: $40.35 billion (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    $32.22 billion (31 December 2009)

    Stock of broad money: $112.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $85.18 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

    Stock of domestic credit: $105 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $83.35 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

    Market value of publicly traded shares: $48.93 billion (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    $52.31 billion (31 December 2008)
    $86.68 billion (31 December 2007)

    Agriculture – products:
    sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock

    Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

    Industrial production growth rate: 8.90%
    country comparison to the world: 34
    note: based on private estimates (2010 est.)

    Electricity – production: 109.5 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Electricity – consumption: 99.21 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Electricity – exports: 2.628 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity – imports: 10.28 billion kWh (2007 est.)

    Oil – production: 796,300 bbl/day (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Oil – consumption: 622,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Oil – exports: 314,400 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Oil – imports: 52,290 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Oil – proved reserves: 2.386 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34

    Natural gas – production: 41.36 billion cu m (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Natural gas – consumption: 43.14 billion cu m (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Natural gas – exports: 890 million cu m (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Natural gas – imports: 2.66 billion cu m (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Natural gas – proved reserves: 398.4 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35

    Current account balance: $3.573 billion (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    $11.13 billion (2009 est.)

    Exports: $68.5 billion (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    $55.67 billion (2009 est.)
    Exports – commodities: soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat
    Exports – partners: Brazil 20.5%, Chile 7.9%, US 6.6%, China 6.6%, Netherlands 4.3% (2009)

    Imports: $56.44 billion (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    $38.78 billion (2009 est.)
    Imports – commodities: machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics
    Imports – partners: Brazil 31.1%, US 13.3%, China 12.4%, Germany 5.1% (2009)

    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $52.23 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    $48.03 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

    Debt – external: $128 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    $120.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

    Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: $86.35 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    $80.15 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad: $30.39 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    $29.45 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

    Exchange rates: Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar – 3.8983 (2010)
    3.7101 (2009)
    3.1636 (2008)
    3.1105 (2007)
    3.0543 (2006)
    # # #
    Transnational Issues ::ARGENTINA
    Disputes – international:
    Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay’s operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur); contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Bolivia

    Illicit drugs:
    a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe, heroin headed for the US, and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs (2008)
    # # #

  3. This article I think give a basic idea of what is going on in trade and tariff in Argentina:
    http://www.economist.com/node/21530136

    Is this a positive action for the argentine economy? What are the pro’s and con’s (repercussions)?

  4. Timeline # 1:

    1912 Sáenz Peña Law introduces universal, secret and compulsory male suffrage, end of the Generation of ’80
    1916 Start of presidency of Hipólito Yrigoyen, UCR democratic reformist
    1918 Students strikes and demonstrations enforce the university reform of shared powers between teachers, graduates and students
    1927 Fabrica Militar de Aviones aircraft factory founded in Cordoba
    1930 Military coup deposed Yrigoyen, starting the ‘Infamous Decade’
    1931 General Agustín Justo declared winner of Presidency following ‘patriotic fraud’ in election
    1943 ‘National Revolution’ led by nationalist military officers including Colonel Juan Perón; ensured continued non-intervention in World War II
    1944 San Juan earthquake destroys provincial capital, kills 10,000
    1945 Argentina enters World War II on the side of the Allies and admitted as founding member of United Nations
    1945 Perón arrested then freed after major popular protest by those known as the Descamisados
    1946 Perón elected President; re-elected to presidency in 1951
    1946 Indigenous people march in Malón de la Paz to Buenos Aires to demand land rights
    1947 Women’s suffrage is approved
    1950 First flight of the FMA IAe 33 Pulqui II, the first jet fighter to be entirely developed and built in Latin America and the 6th in the World.
    1950 The National Atomic Energy Commission (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA) is founded
    1952 Death of Eva Perón
    1955 Perón ousted in ‘Liberating Revolution’ military coup
    1956 INTA, the National Agricultural Technology Institute, is created
    1957 INTI, the National Industrial Technology Institute, is created
    1958 ARA Independencia, the first aircraft carrier of the Argentine Navy enter service
    1962 Military coup ended presidency of civilian Arturo Frondizi
    1966 General Juan Carlos Onganía assumed power and represses political parties
    1967 Death of Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara
    1969 In the Cordobazo popular protests of May 1969, thousands of citizens routed the army and police and took control of Córdoba for two days
    1969 A counter-insurgency aircraft, the FMA IA 58 Pucará, flies for the first time
    1969 Aircraft carrier ARA Veinticinco de Mayo replaces ARA Independencia
    1970 General Alejandro Lanusse emerged as President after Onganía toppled
    1970-76 Civil conflict and terrorist attacks, principally by left-wing Montoneros and Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo opposed by paramilitary Argentine Anticommunist Alliance
    1973 The Ezeiza massacre takes place upon Perón’s return from exile, when members of the Triple A open fire on the crowd awaiting him.
    1973 Democratic elections brought Peronist Héctor Cámpora to power; Perón elected president in fresh elections later that year
    1974 Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, the first nuclear power plant in Latin America, began operation
    1974 Perón died, leaving widow Isabel Martínez de Perón as president
    1976 Military coup in March deposed Martínez de Perón
    1976 The high-technology company INVAP is created
    1976-1983 The Proceso de Reorganización Nacional military government led by Jorge Vileda repressed political and armed opposition through use of torture, forced disappearance and extra-judicial killing up of to 30,000 people
    1978 Argentina hosted and won the 1978 Football World Cup
    1978 Argentina refused the binding Beagle Channel Arbitration and started the Operation Soberania in order to invade Chile
    1982 Leader General Leopoldo Galtieri sent troops to the Falkland Islands triggering Falklands War; British task force retook islands by mid-June
    1983 Military government collapsed; election of Radical Raúl Alfonsín as president
    1984 The Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina ends border dispute over Picton,Nueva and Lennox islands
    1984 Embalse nuclear power plant began operations
    1984 The trainer aircraft FMA IA 63 Pampa flight for the first time.
    1985 La Historia Oficial film won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
    1986 Argentina wins 1986 Football World Cup, captained by Diego Maradona
    1987 First uprising by Carapintadas, commanded by Colonel Aldo Rico, two arrested. Alfonsín delares La casa está en orden (The house is in order)
    1988 Second Carapintada revolt, again under Rico’s command in January, 300 arrested
    1988 Third and last Carapintada uprising, led by Mohammed Alí Seineldín, two arrested
    1989 Dissident military group attacks La Tablada regiment, but are finally seized
    1989 Hyper-inflation and political turmoil brings Peronist Carlos Menem to power in election
    1990-1999 Neo-liberal economic policies and privatisations brought general strikes, hunger strikes and political party realignments
    1991 Peso pegged to US Dollar
    1991 Argentina is the only Latin American country to participate in the first Gulf War under mandate of the United Nations
    1991 Mercosur customs union founded by the Treaty of Asunción
    1991 Argentina, Brazil and Chile signed the Mendoza Declaration prohibiting Chemical Weapons
    1992 Israeli Embassy attack in Buenos Aires killed 29 in terrorist attack
    1993 Argentina joins UNFICYP mission at Cyprus. As of 2006, ground troops and helicopters are serving there and since 1999 have other Latin American countries troops embedded.
    1994 Following the Pacto de Olivos, the constitution reform is agreed, allowing Presidents to serve second consecutive term
    1994 Bombing of AMIA Jewish Community Centre in Buenos Aires, killing 85
    1994 The murder of Conscript Omar Carrasco led to the abolition of Conscription
    1995 Menem won second term
    1995 Argentina acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
    1995 FMA privatized into Lockheed Martin Aircraft Argentina
    1996 Radical Fernando de la Rúa elected first Mayor of Buenos Aires
    1997 Radicals, left-wing FrePaSo and others joined forces as Alianza electoral alliance to oppose Menem and Peronists
    1997 The A-4AR Fightinghawk enter service in the Argentine Air Force
    1998 U.S. President Bill Clinton designated Argentina as a major non-NATO ally
    1999 De la Rúa won Presidency as head of the Alianza, but was confronted by growing economic crisis
    1999 In one of the worst accidents in the history of Argentinian aviation, LAPA flight 3142 crash at Aeroparque Jorge Newbery airport resulted in 65 fatalities.
    [edit]Since 2000

    Néstor Kirchner
    2000 Hitech company INVAP is chosen by Australia to design and construct the OPAL nuclear reactor
    2000 Vice-President Carlos Álvarez resigned in protest political bribes scandal, precipitating crisis in ruling alliance
    2001 In March, the remaining FrePaSo ministers resigned from government in protest at economic and labour reforms
    2001 In November, the government responded to a run on banks by limiting access to bank deposits in the corralito
    2001 In December, events that have become known as the Argentinazo took place:
    middle classes, exasperated with constraints of corralito, took to streets in protest in the Cacerolazo
    Trade unions and piqueteros began protests, and shops and businesses were ransacked
    Violent protests and mass demonstrations in the Plaza de Mayo; 26 die in protests nationwide
    Finance minister Domingo Cavallo and President de la Rúa resigned in quick succession on 19 and 20 December
    Provincial governor Adolfo Rodríguez Saá appointed president by Argentine Congress on 22 December
    Rodríguez Saá declared a short-lived debt moratorium. After a few days, Argentina officially defaulted on $93 billion of its debt to the International Monetary Fund and creditors
    Rodríguez Saá resigned after a week following lack of support from colleagues
    Eduardo Duhalde, losing candidate in the 1999 presidential elections, appointed president with broad cross-party support
    2002 Duhalde imposes further financial measures, including converting dollar accounts to pesos, scrapping 1:1 parity with the dollar, and social measures to bring economy under control
    2003 Former President Carlos Menem wins first round of presidential election but pulls out facing certain defeat, handing victory to fellow Peronist Néstor Kirchner
    2004 In April more than 100,000 people demonstrated in Buenos Aires in support of Juan Carlos Blumberg, father of murdered student Axel Blumberg, demanding harsher criminal laws
    2004 Kirchner pursued Argentine debt restructuring
    2004 Natural gas supply shortage produced tension with Chile
    2004 Antarctic Treaty Secretariat established in Buenos Aires
    2004 A fire in the República Cromagnon nightclub in Buenos Aires kills 194 people and injures 714
    2005 Relations between Catholic Church and government broke down in February row between military chaplain and minister over abortion
    2005 Supreme Court overruled ‘Laws of Pardon’ that were used to pardon military figures of the Dirty War
    2005 First disputes of the Cellulose plant conflict between Argentina and Uruguay
    2005 Mid-term elections in October saw a massive split in the Justicialist Party between Kirchner’s centre-left Front for Victory faction and the rump of his former patron Duhalde and other provincial leaders; Front for Victory wins by large margin
    2005 Massive demonstrations against U.S. President George W. Bush at the Fourth Summit of the Americas in Mar del Plata
    2005 In December, Kirchner announced cancellation of IMF debt with single, final payment
    2006 Buenos Aires mayor Aníbal Ibarra removed from office following accusations of negligence regarding the República Cromagnon nightclub fire of 2004
    2007 Catholic priest Christian Von Wernich is found guilty of involvement in seven murders and 42 cases of kidnapping and torture related to the state-sponsored Dirty War. Von Wernich is sentenced to life imprisonment.
    2007 Cristina Kirchner assumes as new president of Argentina.

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